Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Cross pollination

Self and cross pollination are the two methods of pollination in plants during their sexual reproduction. Different plant species exercise different pollination modes, and the benefits accrued depend upon the kind of pollen transferred.

When pollen from one flower is carried to the stigma of another, the process is termed cross-pollination or outcrossing. During cross pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the anther of a flower into a different flower of a different plant in the same species. In cross-pollination, the pollen moves from plant to plant carried mainly by wind for some crops or mainly by insects, often bee species, for others. The success of cross-pollination depends on the synchrony of flowering, the longevity of pollen, and sexual compatibility.

Outcrossing is brought about by two kinds of agents: abiotic and biotic. Abiotic pollinating agents are inanimate physical forces. Thus, abiotic pollination is generally "random", or at least is not directed specifically between flowers. In the case of biotic pollinating agents, animals perform the task of pollination (zoophily).

Cross-pollinating plants often have the male and female reproductive units on separate plants (termed dioecious). Cross pollinating flowers exhibit special characteristics in order to attract external pollinating agents like animals and insects to the flower. These characteristics are bright color, large petals, nectar and scents,as well as long stamens and pistils.
Cross pollination
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